Limited to seven percent or less of the country’s total land area, Egypt’s agricultural landscape is threatened by the repercussions of climate change, desertification, urban expansion,
soil depletion, and looming water scarcity. Outside of the Nile river valley and scattered fertile pockets in the desert oases, the vast majority of land is desert: rocky, parched and unable to support conventional farming.

Egypt is in the midst of an energy crisis that is being felt across the board, from residents to small businesses to major industries. Political unrest and the resulting economic downturn have exacerbated the shortage by making it difficult to maintain or build power stations and secure the capital and natural gas to expand power generation, which was at 70 percent of capacity by summer 2014.

Egypt generates more than 20 million tons of municipal solid waste on an annual basis, or the equivalent of the largest Giza Pyramid every 40 days. Less than 65 percent of this waste is collected by the public or private sector, and a mere 20 percent is recycled or responsibly dealt with.